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Abstract

Cigarette Smoking Impairs Pancreatic Duct Cell Bicarbonate Secretion

Objective To compare pancreatic duct cell function in smokers (current and past) and never smokers by measurement of secretinstimulated peak bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3-]) in endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid (PF). Methods This retrospectivestudy was cross-sectional in design, recording demographic information (age, gender, etc.), smoking status (former, current, never), alcohol intake, clinical data (imaging, endoscopy), and laboratory results (peak PF [HCO3-]) from subjects evaluated for pancreatic disease at a tertiary pancreas center. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (SAS Version 9.2, Cary, NC, USA) was performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid bicarbonate concentration. Results A total of 131 subjects underwent pancreatic fluid collection (endoscopic pancreatic function test, ePFT) for bicarbonate analysis: 25.2% (33 out of 131) past smokers, 31.3% (41 out of 131) current smokers, and 43.5% (57 out of 131) were never smokers. Measures of Association: The mean peak PF [HCO3-] in never smokers (81.3±18.5 mEq/L) was statistically higher (indicating better duct cell function) when compared to past smokers (66.8±24.7 mEq/L, P=0.005) and current smokers (70.0±20.2mEq/L, P=0.005). However, the mean peak [HCO3-] in past smokers was not statistically different from that in current smokers (P=0.575), and therefore, the two smoking groups were combined to form a single “smokers cohort”. When compared to the never smokers, the smokers cohort was older (P=0.037) and had a greater proportion of subjects with definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (P=0.010), alcohol consumption ≥20 g/day (P=0.012), abnormal peak PF [HCO3-] (P<0.001). Risk-Based Estimates: Cigarette smoking (risk ratio, RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5; P<0.001), diagnosis of definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6- 3.2; P<0.001) and alcohol consumption ≥20 g/day (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; P=0.033) were all associated with low mean peak PF [HCO3 - ] (indicating duct cell secretory dysfunction). Multivariate Analysis: Smoking (odds ratio, OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-9.1; P=0.003) and definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 2.2-14.8; P<0.001) were determined to be independent predictors of low peak PF [HCO3 - ], controlling for age, gender, and alcohol intake. Furthermore there was no interaction between smoking status and alcohol intake in predicting duct cell dysfunction (P=0.571). Conclusion Measurement of pancreatic fluid bicarbonate in smokers reveals that cigarette smoking (past and current) is an independent risk factor for pancreatic duct cell secretory dysfunction (low PF [HCO3 - ]). Furthermore, the risk of duct cell dysfunction in subjects who smoked was approximately twice the risk (RR: 2.2) in never smokers. Further in depth, translational research approaches to pancreatic fluid analysis may help unravel mechanisms of cigarette smoking induced pancreatic duct cell injury.


Author(s):

Linda S Lee, Peter A Banks, Joao A Paulo, Vivek Kadiyala, Shadeah L Suleiman, Wei Wang, Jessica Rosenblum, Nisha I Sainani, Koenraad Mortele, Darwin L Conwell



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