Context Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has become a pandemic disease since the very first cases were reported in 1981. Many studies estimate a prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 2-18% of human immunodeficiency virus patients. Other metabolic changes have been reported in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients under treatment with potent antiretroviral therapy. Recently, morphological changes on the islets of Langerhans were described in these patients. The objective of this study is a literature review in order to know the possible causes of endocrine disorders in these patients. Methods Bibliographic review of all indexed literature by searching the Medline/PubMed databases using the following keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, antiretroviral therapy, highly active, diabetes mellitus, insulin-secreting cells. Results Several published papers show endocrine alterations in patients using High Active Antiretroviral Therapy, but since these are multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, a single explanation is weakened. Conclusion There are changes in the endocrine pancreas in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the High Active Antiretroviral Therapy era, both morphological as clinical, which can be attributed to several causes, including the High Active Antiretroviral Therapy.