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Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus Due to a C96Y Heterozygous Mutation in the Insulin Gene. A Case Report

Context Neonatal diabetes is a rare disorder with an incidence of 1 in 215,000-500,000 live births with 50% of them having permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. Case report We present a case of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus due to a C96Y (c.287G>A; p.Cys96Tyr) heterozygous mutation in the insulin (INS) gene. Both the patient and his father (who had childhoodonset insulin-requiring diabetes) were found to be carriers of a heterozygous missense mutation C96Y in exon 3 of the INS gene. It has been hypothesized that these mutations disrupt the folding of the proinsulin molecule and result in a misfolded protein or retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress and beta cell apoptosis. Subjects with this form of diabetes will need lifelong insulin therapy. Conclusion Insulin gene mutations appear to be an important cause of neonatal diabetes worldwide. This is the first report of a case from the Indian subcontinent. It is important to carry out genetic tests for mutations linked to pancreatic beta cell dysfunction in all patients with persistent neonatal diabetes mellitus in order to decide on therapy

Author(s): Anish Ahamed, Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Sanket Sharad Pendsey, Sheela Nampoothiri, Nisha Bhavani, Valliyaparambil Pavithran Praveen, Harish Kumar, Rohinivilasam Vasukutty Jayakumar, Vasantha Nair, Sian Ellard, Emma L Edghill

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