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Preventing Post-ERCP Pancreatitis: The Role of Prophylactic Pancreatic Duct Stenting in the Rectal NSAID Era

Background Rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is now the standard of care to reduce the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Pancreatic duct stenting also reduces the risk of post- ERCP pancreatitis in high-risk patients, but failed pancreatic duct stenting carries an increased PEP rate (up to 35%). Study Aim To assess the impact on post-ERCP pancreatitis of successful and unsuccessful pancreatic duct stent placement in the setting of universal rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Methods Between 2013-2015, all patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographys in our tertiary referral centre (where rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used routinely) were included. The electronic patient’s records were reviewed and the following parameters were analysed: indication for pancreatic duct stenting; deployment success; and adverse events. Results A total of 1633 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographys were performed, and pancreatic duct stenting was attempted in 324 cases (20%), with successful placement in 307 patients (95%). Contra-indications to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were found in 106 (6.5%) patients. Prophylactic stenting failed in 12 of 213 patients; of whom one patient developed post-ERCP pancreatitis (8%). Eighteen (9%) patients with prophylactic pancreatic duct stents developed post-ERCP pancreatitis compared to 1.4% without prophylactic stents (RR 8.4, p=0.04). Conclusion A lack of difference in post-ERCP pancreatitis in those who underwent successful, and unsuccessful, pancreatic duct stent placement may reflect the protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This data adds to evidence suggesting that pancreatic duct stenting may be less important, even in high-risk patients, with the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Author(s): Noor-L-Houda Bekkali, Tom Thomas, Margaret Geraldine Keane, Sam Murray, Deepak Joshi, Ghassan Elsayed, Gavin James Johnson, Michael Huw Chapman, Stephen Paul Pereira, George John Mitchell Webster

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