Simplified/Same Day(s)-GOLF as First-line Treatment of Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary (CUP), Suggestive of Pancreatobiliary Tumors

Background Carcinoma of unknown primary represents a therapeutic challenge in oncological practice. Evidence lacks to support particular chemotherapy selection and empirical therapies are commonly extrapolated from data on patients where primary tumor site is known. Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin and 5-Fluorouracil was previously developed to treat pancreatic cancer. These agents have also demonstrated activities in other gastrointestinal malignancies. Considering promising anti-tumor effects of GOLF, we performed a retrospective study to investigate anti-tumor activity and safety of a simplified Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin and 5-Fluorouracil in patients with Carcinoma of unknown primary in whom immunohistostaining was suggestive of either upper gastrointestinal cancers or pancreatobiliary cancers. Methods This retrospective study included 18 patients recorded to have a diagnosis of Carcinoma of unknown primary between Aug 2010-Dec 2015, who received biweekly G 1000 mg/m2, O 85 mg/m2, L 200 mg/m2 and F 2400 mg/m2 over 46-h on day 1 with pegfilgrastim on day 3 every 14 days. IHC staining pattern favored upper GI origin, including stomach, bile duct or pancreas. Tumor assessments were repeated every 8 weeks. Results Median age was 67 years (range: 46-76), with ECOG PS<2, and 50% were women. Median number of cycles was 4 (range: 3-14). 7 partial responses were obtained (RR: 39%) and 7 achieved stable disease with overall disease control of 78%. Median time to tumor progression was 4 months (range: 2-9). 8 (44%) patients received liver-directed therapy and 1 underwent HIPEC (5%). Median survival time was 10.5 months (range: 6.7-14.5) and 1-year overall survival rate was 35%. Grade 3-4 toxicities included neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, diarrhea, mucositis and oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Conclusion Simplified Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin and 5-Fluorouracil regimen appears to be feasible with promising activity for Carcinoma of unknown primary and deserves to be evaluated in future trials.


Muhammad Wasif Saif, Komal Wasif, Martin D. Goodman, Sanjay Hegde, Mark Sterling, Robert Yacavone, Sunny Jaiswal, Barbara Weinstein, Kevin Daly, Valerie Relias

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